Additional Note: Other digital ad spending historical data up to 2015 is derived from Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB)/PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) data. Automotive includes all automotive-related categories including sale/purchase of vehicles and parts and maintenance including but not limited to the following categories and segments: new car, used car, service, parts, OEMs, dealer associations, franchise dealers, co-op, independent dealers, aftermarket service, aftermarket parts, auto finance (depending on the source of the ad spending) wholesale/auction and private party sales. Computing products & consumer electronics include hardware (computers, computer storage devices and computer peripheral equipment), consumer electronics, prepackaged software (operating, utility and applications programs), local area network systems and network systems integration, computer processing, and data preparation and data processing services. CPG & consumer products includes food and beverage products, household products, packaged goods, tobacco, personal care products, toiletries and cosmetic products. Entertainment includes amusement and recreation, box office, film, music, OTT video platforms, sporting events and ticketing and video games (excluding video game hardware). Financial services includes commercial, investment, retail banks, cooperative banks, credit unions, property and casualty, life and mutual insurance, credit agencies, personal and business credit institutions, mortgage lending, tax preparation, hedge funds, private equity, venture capital firms, wealth management, payment platforms, card networks, companies engaged in the underwriting, purchase, sale or brokerage of securities and other financial contracts; also includes fintech companies that have disrupted the industry and leverage the internet, mobile devices, software technology or cloud services to provide traditional financial services (e.g., banking, insurance, lending) and emerging financial services (e.g., payments, crowdfunding, cryptocurrency, blockchain, etc.). Healthcare and pharma includes pharmaceutical products, facilities, services, researchers, drug manufacturers and marketers, doctors, hospitals and biological products, as well as establishments providing health care services and social assistance for individuals; also includes health insurance advertising. Media includes establishments primarily engaged in radio and television broadcasting (network and station) including educational, commercial, religious, sports and other radio or television stations. Includes print media (newspapers, magazines and classifieds). Also includes establishments primarily engaged in publishing. Retail includes mail order/catalog, restaurants/fast food, drug stores, retail stores, cosmetics stores, and merchants of apparel, home furnishings/textiles, toys, pet food/supplies, appliances, jewelry and general merchandise. Telecom includes point-to-point communications services, including telephone voice and data communications, two-way mobile/cellular communications services and other nonvoice message communications services (e.g., email, fax); includes multichannel video providers on a subscription fee basis (e.g., broadcast TV, cable TV, satellite TV, telco/fiber operators, etc.). Travel includes airlines, car rental, hotels and resorts, cruises and destination marketing organizations; includes leisure and unmanaged business travel. Other includes categories that fall outside of those mentioned, such as real estate, politics, non-profit, professional services, energy, manufacturing, industrial and education.